Verbs of reference academic writing

Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the informal two-word verb with a more formal equivalent. A primary education system was set up throughout Ireland as early as 2.

Verbs of reference academic writing

Print How to Give References In this sub-section, different ways of giving references are outlined: Practices differ depending on discipline References are provided in different manners within different disciplines. In some fields and reference styles, they are mainly given as numerals indicating a certain source, whereas other disciplines favour a style where references are integrated in the text to a larger extent.

Guide to Grammar and Writing

Hyland outlines clear differences between different research disciplines and also explains how these differences affect the text: In the hard sciences, only Biology [conforms] to this pattern.

The conventions of impersonality in science help to account for the relatively low incidence of citation in the Physics and Engineering corpus and for the predominance of non-integral structures. By reducing their emphasis on individual actors, writers reinforce the ideology that the legitimacy of hard-science knowledge is built on socially invariant criteria […] This also explains the overwhelming use of footnote formats in the sciences, replacing cited authors.

The Heterogeneity of Academic Writing Integrating references into the text When references in the form of quotations or paraphrases are provided, they must be integrated into the text, both language-wise and content-wise.

verbs of reference academic writing

As is further described in the AWELU text on quoting, quotations as well as paraphrases must be contextualised, introduced and identified: How to quote Methods for this vary between disciplines, and as all writers of academic texts know, it takes some practice to master the art of using references in a relevant and correct fashion.

A common way of introducing what someone else has said or written is to say "According to Another way of identifying and introducing the source is to use what is called a reporting verb. As the term indicates, this kind of verb reports what someone else has stated.

Writers need to choose a reporting verb that helps them to to convey their intention in using the reference. In in-text references, the name of the author s cited will be provided in the running text: SmithJones In such references, a linguistic device known as a reporting verb or reporting phrase can be used to identify the author of the source in the text.

As the term suggests, these verbs report what the source states. Depending on the effect desired, writers need to choose a suitable reporting verb. Common reporting verbs are: Useful words and phrases Integral and non-integral citations References can be integrated into the running text to different degrees.

Sometimes, the terms integral citation and non-integral citation are used to describe the nature of in-text citations.

Integral citations In integral citations, the author of the source referred to is acknowledged in the running text. After the quoted passage, we have extracted the reporting verbs.

For instance, Weber and colleagues Weber ; Weber et al. The last two tactics are defined by Weber as ineffective at reducing anger, and may map well onto the anger-in items of the AEI.

Linden and colleagues Hogan and Linden ; Linden et al. Results of factor analyses showed that anger inhibition may appear as high levels of anger avoidance and anger diffusion, which appear akin to cognitive restructuring and distraction, and as low levels of assertiveness.

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Their results also pointed to rumination as closely related to anger inhibition. Further, Sukhodolsky et al.List of Measurable Verbs Used to Assess Learning Outcomes. Clinton Community College in Plattsburgh, NY.

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The authors focus directly on a command of Spanish verbs--and fluency in Spanish starts with knowledge of verbs. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).

Present-Tense Verbs. I do that naturally, because it's my job and I love it. So, for your writing assignments in a history course, please don't use the present tense, when describing the past.

Use the past tense, instead. There is one notable exception to the rule of excluding present-tense verbs in academic prose.

IELTS writing tips - Adjectives and adverbs

When modern. Citing authors Key words: author-date, citation, in-text references, strong author, weak author, reporting words In your academic writing, you have to support your points with concrete evidence taken from a variety of valid sources, and name the author/source of your evidence in your writing.

In academic writing, there are typically quite long stretches of text devoid of phrasal verbs. Here is a short example from a linguistics textbook (William Croft's Typology and Universals, .

70 useful sentences for academic writing