Error analysis was created by Stephen Corder in in an attempt to streamline a larger concept known as contrastive analysis. Where the latter holds that errors made by second language learners are the result of what they know of their first native language, error analysis poses that specific errors are made for specific reasons possibly unrelated to transfer.
Free word-building in Interlingua Words in Interlingua may be taken from any language,  as long as their internationality is verified by their presence in seven control languages: These are the most widely spoken RomanceGermanicand Slavic languagesrespectively.
Because of their close relationship, Spanish and Portuguese are treated as one unit. The largest number of Interlingua words are of Latin origin, with the Greek and Germanic languages providing the second and third largest number. The remainder of the vocabulary originates in Slavic and non- Indo-European languages.
Interlingua and eligibility of international words A word, that is a form with meaning, is eligible for the Interlingua vocabulary if it is verified by at least three of the four primary control languages.
Either secondary control language can substitute for a primary language. Any word of Indo-European origin found in a control language can contribute to the eligibility of an international word. A word can be potentially Essay on interlanguage in a language when a derivative is present, but the word itself is not.
English proximity, for example, gives support to Interlingua proxime, meaning 'near, close'. This counts as long as one or more control languages actually have this basic root word, which the Romance languages all do.
Potentiality also occurs when a concept is represented as a compound or derivative in a control language, the morphemes that make it up are themselves international, and the combination adequately conveys the meaning of the larger word. An example is Italian fiammifero lit. This word is thus said to be potentially present in the other languages although they may represent the meaning with a single morpheme.
If their meanings have become different over timethey are considered different words for the purpose of Interlingua eligibility.
If they still have one or more meanings in common, however, the word can enter Interlingua with this smaller set of meanings. This only occurred with a few grammatical particles. Form[ edit ] The form of an Interlingua word is considered an international prototype with respect to the other words.
On the one hand, it should be neutral, free from characteristics peculiar to one language. On the other hand, it should maximally capture the characteristics common to all contributing languages.
As a result, it can be transformed into any of the contributing variants using only these language-specific characteristics. This sometimes corresponds with that of Vulgar Latin. At other times, it is much more recent or even contemporary. It is never older than the classical period.
German Auge, Dutch oog and English eye cf. In addition, international derivatives like ocular and oculista occur in all of Interlingua's control languages.
Internal word-building, though freer than in the control languages, is more limited than in schematic languages.
More recently, modern alternatives have become generally accepted.
For example, the southern Romance comprar, meaning 'to buy', has replaced emer, because the latter occurs only in derivatives in the control languages. Similarly, the modern form troppo, 'too' or 'too much', has replaced nimis, and ma 'but' has largely replaced sed.
Interlingua grammar Interlingua has been developed to omit any grammatical feature that is absent from any one primary control language. Thus, Interlingua has no noun—adjective agreement by gender, case, or number cf.
Spanish and Portuguese gatas negras or Italian gatte nere, 'black female cats'because this is absent from English, and it has no progressive verb tenses English I am readingbecause they are absent from French. Conversely, Interlingua distinguishes singular nouns from plural nouns because all the control languages do.
The definite article le is invariable, as in English. Nouns have no grammatical gender. In the third person, the reflexive is always se.Read this essay on Interlanguage. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays.
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