Greater resistance to the common cold Better psychological and physical well-being Better cardiovascular health and reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease Better coping skills during hardships and times of stress It's unclear why people who engage in positive thinking experience these health benefits. One theory is that having a positive outlook enables you to cope better with stressful situations, which reduces the harmful health effects of stress on your body. It's also thought that positive and optimistic people tend to live healthier lifestyles — they get more physical activity, follow a healthier diet, and don't smoke or drink alcohol in excess.
The text of the Hebrew printed Bible consists of consonants, vowel signs, and cantillation musical or tonal marks. This is because human beings are careless, fallible, and occasionally perverse.
Variation can occur in several ways: The task of the textual critic is to detect and, so far as possible, undo these effects. His concern is with the reconstruction of what no longer exists.
A text is not a concrete artifactlike a pot or a statue, but an abstract concept or idea. The critic must reduce these approximations as nearly as possible to the first or original state that they imperfectly represent; or if, as sometimes happens for reasons that will be explained below, no single original can be reconstructed or postulated, he must reduce their number to the lowest possible figure.
His methods and the degree of his success will be determined by the nature of the individual problem—i. The range of possible situations is vast, as the following survey indicates.
The types of text with which the critic is concerned may be classified broadly under three heads. This is a simplification. Experience teaches that some errors will survive uncorrected in the published version.
Further errors are likely to occur if a book is reprinted. Even an edition revised by the author is not to be regarded as textually definitive. Errors committed and overlooked by the author himself may be corrected by the critic in appropriate cases.
The extent to which a critic is free to choose between authorial variants on aesthetic grounds is a matter of debate. Books published before the 19th century pose essentially similar problems in a more intractable form, as may be seen in the case of Shakespeare.
Elizabethan printers clearly had little regard for strict textual accuracy, so that allowance must be made not only for error but for deliberate alteration by compositors; thus the textual criticism of 16th- and 17th-century books must include a study of the practices of early printers.
Books transmitted in manuscript Nearly all classical and patristic texts, and a great many medieval texts, fall into this category. Every handwritten copy of a book is textually unique, and to that extent represents a separate edition of the text.
The critic is in principle obliged to establish the relationship of every surviving manuscript copy of a text to every other.
The difficulty and indeed the feasibility of this undertaking varies enormously from case to case. The following extremes embrace a wide range of intermediate possibilities.
Benedict] and much medieval vernacular literature. To this extent all Greek books written before the establishment of the Alexandrian library see below History of textual criticism were exposed to the hazards associated with oral transmission.
Books transmitted orally Many texts have been orally transmitted, sometimes for long periods, before being committed to writing, and much textual variation may be attributable to this stage of transmission.
The length, complexity, and fidelity of oral traditions varies enormously.
Sometimes this is attributable not to spontaneous variation but to deliberate reworking, whether by the author, as appears to be the case with the three or perhaps four versions of the English poem Piers Plowmanor by later revisers, as with the four versions of Digenis Akritas a Greek epic.
The distinction, however, is not always easy to draw. These considerations apply to a wide range of texts from ancient Hebrew through Old Norse to modern Russian, but they are especially important for medieval literature.
A problem of particular difficulty and importance is posed by the Greek New Testament.The science. The Wim Hof Method is a combination of three things: exposure to cold, breathing techniques and meditation.
The cold exposure is the most visible part of the method, especially when people step into bathtubs filled with ice cubes.
• Have clear picture of where your organization stands • Change the attitude of people in organization • Do not deny reality • Criticism is appropriate when deserved TEN STEPS TO LEARNING ORGANIZATION .
positive interactions between people. Changes large & small within organization have ripple effects. The effects of criticism on attitude change through Social Judgment Theory Abstract The best theory to addresses how people’s attitudes change as situations and involvement change is social judgment theory.
Music, Film, TV and Political News Coverage. The Yale attitude change approach is a method of making persuasive communications effective, a study begun by Carl Hovland based on his experiences during World War II attempting to boost morale in US soldiers with propaganda. A criticism of the tripartite view of attitudes is that it requires cognitive, affective, and behavioral associations of an attitude to be consistent, but this may be implausible.
Affective forecasting, otherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change. Research suggests that predicting emotions is an.