Definition[ edit ] Art history as we know it in the 21st century began in the 19th century but has precedents that date to the ancient world. Like the analysis of historical trends in politics, literature, and the sciences, the discipline benefits from the clarity and portability of the written word, but art historians also rely on formal analysissemioticspsychoanalysis and iconography.
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Because of the emergence of new technologies like photography, the motor car, cinematography, and the airplane, artists felt the need for a more radical approach, a new perspective that would expand the possibilities of art like the new technologies were extending the limits of communication and travel.
This new perspective was called Cubism, also known as the first abstract style of modern art. Some say that the year is its starting point.
This was also the year in which Picasso was introduced by the poet Apollinaire to Braque. They wanted instead to emphasize the two-dimensionality of the canvas. So they reduced and fractured objects into geometric forms, and then realigned these within a shallow, relief like space.
They also used multiple or contrasting vantage points. In the development of Cubism, there were three phases: The first phase of Cubism — Pre-Cubism The first phase, which was also known as pre-cubism lasted until the year and it is under the strong influence of Cezanne and his famous characteristic of reproducing nature in paintings by using cylinders, spheres, and cones.
In this period, Picasso and Braque were painting characters, landscapes and still life. They were not satisfied with the attempts of renouncing on perspectives and started aiming at reducing the motifs to fundamental geometric forms.
The second phase of Cubism — Analytical Cubism Analytical Cubism is considered to be one of the major branches of the Cubism and it was developed in the — period. In this phase, color was almost non-existent except for cases when the artists used monochromatic schemes that included blue, gray and ochre.
Analytic cubists focused more on forms like spheres, cylinders, and cones to represent the natural world. Because of these features, the works created by Picasso and Braque had stylistic similarities. Violin and Jug — Georges Braque — 3. The third phase of Cubism — Synthetic Cubism The last movement of Cubism and the second as importance, Synthetic Cubism was developed by Picasso, Braque, Juan Gris and others in the — period.
This cubism movement was characterized by the introduction of different surfaces, textures, papier colle, collage elements and a great variety of merged subject matter.
This was the first introduction of collage materials as an important ingredient of fine artworks. Still Life with Mandolin and Guitar — Pablo Picasso — In comparison to Analytic Cubism, which was an analysis of the subjects pulling them apart into planesSynthetic Cubism is actually pushing several objects together.
Less pure than Analytic Cubism, this movement has fewer planar schematism and less shading, creating flatter space. The Influence of African Art on Cubism The artists of the cubist movement considered that the traditions of the Western art were overrated and the remedy they applied to revitalize their work was to draw on the expressive energy of art from other cultures, especially from the African art.
The inspiration to cross-reference art that came from other cultures is believed to come from Paul Gauguin, a French post-impressionist artist. His prints and paintings were inspired by the native cultures of Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands, places where he spent his final years.
Head of a Woman — Pablo Picasso and right: Dan Mask A controversial element of early Cubism was the grotesque face that evoked African masks. The exaggerated features of these masks represented a hallmark of Cubism. The artists tried to interplay elements in their works and to create a sort of detachment in technique, resulting in grotesque, exaggerated forms.
Which are the most important characteristics of Cubism? In Cubism, proportions, organic integrity and continuity of life samples and material objects are abandoned. Actually, despite what some vicious critics might have said at the time, a closer look into cubist artworks reveals a very methodical deconstruction into three-dimensional shaded facets, some caved others convex.
This movement rejects these images and recognizes that perspective space is an illusory and rational invention or a sign system that comes from Renaissance art. Factory, Horta de Ebbo — Pablo Picasso In cubist works, instead of an image of an external world, we are given a world of its own, analogous to nature but built upon different principles.
Which are the main domains where Cubism emerged? Nude Descending Starecase No. The artists wanted to emphasize the two-dimensionality of the canvas so they fractured and reduced the objects into geometric forms and then realigned them within a shallow, relief like space.
A specific feature also was the use of multiple or contrasting vantage points. Cubism in sculpture Although it was primarily associated with painting, Cubism also exerted a great influence on 20th-century sculpture. Like in painting, cubism sculpture had its course byand it became an influence and contributed fundamentally to Constructivism and Futurism.Word Origin and History for cubism n.
, from French cubisme, from cube (see cube (n.)), said to have been coined by French art critic Louis Vauxcelles at the Salon des Indépendants in reference to a work by Georges Braque.
Artwork description & Analysis: Picasso's Bowl of Fruit, Violin and Bottle is typical of his Synthetic Cubism, in which he uses various means - painted dots, silhouettes, grains of sand - to allude to the depicted objects.
This combination of painting and mixed media is an example of the way Picasso "synthesized" color and texture Place Of Birth: Malaga, Spain. There is only one country in the world where Cubism was really applied to architecture – namely Bohemia Cubism: A History and an Analysis, , New York: Wittenborn, Richardson, Cubism, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art;.
In general, however, most art critics treat Synthetic Cubism very seriously and read enormous significance into its use of non-art materials. They see the style as the starting point for a number of junk art movements and anti-art schools such as Dada.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
The study includes painting, sculpture, architecture, ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. As a term, art history (its product being history of art) encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts; in common usage referring to works.
In its assault on the old certainties of Renaissance art, Cubism mirrored the calls for change in many other disciplines, as well as the world at large.
Note: For an explanation of some of the great Cubist works by Picasso and others, see: Analysis of Modern Paintings ().