The Spatial Turn In a recent book, The Spatial Turn, Barney Warf and Santa Arias argue that new spatial thinking related to globalization has changed the lens through which we view space. His study, Atlas of the European Novel, offered spatial analysis on several levels.
Background In the long history of philosophy there have been comparatively few signs of social epistemology until recently.
Treatments of such topics that would nowadays be subsumed under this heading have occurred in various periods think of discussions of testimony by Hume and A geography of stanfordbut they were never assembled into a single unified package.
In the second half of the 20th century, however, philosophers and theorists of assorted stripes launched a variety of debunking movements aimed at traditional epistemology.
In the s and s there was a convergence of such thinkers who attacked the notion of truth and objectivity, a constellation that gained powerful influence in the academic community. Many of them challenged the intelligibility of the truth concept, or challenged the feasibility of truth acquisition.
In the social studies of science practitioners such as Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar  rejected the ideas of truth or fact as traditionally understood.
Discourse being a social phenomenon, what they were saying, in effect, is that facts were to be eliminated in favor of social phenomena. Although few practicing philosophers of the period endorsed these ideas, at least one influential philosopher, Richard Rortyseemed to be a camp follower.
Sharply departing from these debunking themes, contemporary social epistemology is substantially continuous with classical epistemology.
It sees no need to reject or distance itself from the epistemological projects of the past. Even social practices, after all, can be—and often are—aimed at finding the truth. Such social practices have a hit-or-miss record; but the same could be said of individual practices.
At any rate, epistemologists can engage in their traditional enterprise of appraising alternative methods in terms of their capacities or propensities to achieve this kind of goal.
Such epistemology can survive, and even thrive, with an expanded conception of how the truth-goal and the justification and rationality goals can be served, namely, with the help of well-designed social and interpersonal practices and institutions.
Initial moves toward a positive form of social epistemology as opposed to a debunking form were begun in the mids, largely in response to the debunkers.
Alvin Goldman offered promissory notes In the same issue Steve Fuller pursued a line more akin to the debunkers, and elaborated his position the following year with a monograph Fuller That same year Fuller launched a journal entitled Social Epistemology, which became a prime venue for science studies work.
This path, however, does not express what most philosophers now pursue under the heading of social epistemology. The decade of the s and its run-up saw the publication of several monographs and chapter-length treatments of various branches of social epistemology, followed by a wide-angle depiction of the field as a whole.
Kitcher highlighted diversity within scientific communities as an important tool in the pursuit of truth. Alvin Goldman published a series of papers applying social epistemology to a number of topics, including argumentation Goldmanfreedom of speech Goldman and Coxlegal procedure Talbott and Goldmanand scientific inquiry Goldman and Shaked His book Knowledge in a Social World showed how classical epistemology, with its focus on the values truth possession and error avoidance, could be applied to the social domain without abandoning its traditional rigor.
Among the domains covered were testimony, argumentation, the Internet, science, law, and democracy. The years since have witnessed a surge of activity in social epistemology. This surge was encouraged by the launch of the journal Episteme, which is heavily dedicated to work in the field.Find Stanford, California Geography jobs and career resources on Monster.
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Starting on October 15, you can follow a timely course being presented by Stanford . This provided the Stanford administration with an excuse to abolish our geography department. Apart from the geographers, I was the only faculty member to protest. Now The Economist (3/15/03) has a feature article entitled "The Revenge of Geography", dealing .
Bachelor in Geography from the University of Brasilia. MA in Geography from the Federal University of Goias. PhD in Geography from the University of Brasilia.
Currently an assistant professor of the Geography, Biology and Engineering courses at UniBH. Stanford, CA